At the beginning of the XVII century, Europe is still centred on the Mediterranean, the fief of the two great empires that share it: the Ottoman Empire in the East and the Spanish Empire in the West. The latter has just reached its summit and has recently benefited from the immense wealth of the treasures of the Americas that allows it to spread the shadow of its power over all Europe. Throughout this century, Spain progressively weakens from within and loses her supremacy. Paradoxically, the radiance of her culture assures her a new Golden Century, that of art and literature.